Kelantan - Malaysia
of Kelantan is the northernmost state on the East Peninsular Malaysia.
It has an area of 14,931 square kilometres. Rustic settings of picturesque
vampings (villages) amidst padi-fields give insights into a way
of life that has endured the passing of time. Kelantan's history
dates to between 8000-3000 B.C. Chinese historical documents chronicle
the existence of a government which had links with China, when Kelantan
was referred to as 'Ho-lo-tan'.
As early as the 5th century, a Chinese historian
named Shen-Yau recorded the existence of a thriving city called
Ho-lo-tan or Kuo-lo-tan in the Malay Peninsula.
Much later, the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) records that
during the reign of Sultan Mahmud Shah of Malacca, three princesses
Early accounts of Kelantan history show it was
embroiled in constant political turmoil with Thailand to the north
and Terengganu, Pahang and Johor to the south.
After the fall of the Malacca Sultanate in the
15th century, Kelantan fell on and off under the influence of
neighbouring Patani. The Siamese eventually established their
influence over Kelantan following a treaty in 1832. Later, Siam
dispatched a British adviser with the title of Siamese High Commissioner
to Kelantan. W.A. Graham was appointed the first Siamese High
Commissioner in 1902.
Then in 1909, the British and Siamese ratified
the Bangkok Agreement, delivering Kelantan to the British and
J.S. Mascon was dispatched as the first British adviser. The Japanese
invasion in 1941 saw Kelantan being handed back to Siam during
the Japanese Occupation. In September 1945, Kelantan was placed
under the British Military Administration.
The British in London formed the Malayan Peninsula
Planning Unit in 1943; and on 10 October 1945, the Malayan Union
scheme was presented to the British Parliament. Sir Harold MacMichael
was sent to obtain the agreement of the Malay Rulers. According
to the plan, Penang, Malacca and 9 Malay states were to be united
under the Malayan Union.
However, Malay opposition derailed the Malayan
Union plan. The Malays united under the leadership of Dato' Onn
Jaafar to form the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
on 11 May 1946. Finally, the Federation of Malaya was founded
on 1 February 1948 and on 31 August 1957, Malaya gained independence
from the British.
| The state flag features a
white crest against a red background. The colour red symbolizes
the loyalty of the Kelantanese people and white represents the
sanctity of the Ruler.
| The central motif of the state
emblem is the crown, the symbol of the Sultan's sovereignty.
The crescent moon and star are the symbols of Islam. On either
side of the star, the spears and keris signify the strength
of the Kelantan Malays, while the cannon symbolises the readiness
of the State to defend itself. The deer on the extreme left
and right commemorate the historic reign of Kelantan's female
ruler, Che Siti Wan Kembang, during the 14th century. She ordered
the State gold coinage to be stamped with the design of a deer
(kijang), her favourite animal. The English translation
of the state motto which appears in a white banner below, means
"To God the Government of Kelantan Submit".
TOWNS AND CITIES
Details top follow.
PLACES OF INTEREST
Details to follow
||14,290 square km
| State Capital
Namely:- Bachok, Gua Musang, Jeli, Kota Bharu, Kuala Krai,
Machang, Pasir Mas, Pasir Puteh, Tanah Merah and Tumpat
Breakdown of Races (1995)