Johor - Malaysia
Johor is the third largest (19,984 sq km) and one
of the most developed states in Peninsular Malaysia. It is situated
at the southern tip of the peninsula, just across the Straits of
Johor from Singapore
(with which it is connected by a road and rail causeway). Johor's
population exceeds two million people, comprising an ethnic mix
of Malays, Chinese, Indians, and other groups. Its capital is Johor
The rise of Johor as a political power was precipitated
by the downfall of Malacca. With the Portuguese capture of Malacca
in 1511, the Malay kingdom re-established itself in Johor. For
the next several centuries Johor played an important role in the
regional power struggles, eventually allying itself with the Dutch
in their successful capture of Malacca in 1641.
In competition with the Achehs of northern Sumatra
and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged
prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances
with friendly Malay states and in particular the Dutch. In 1641
Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca.
By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening
and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth
century reduced its sovereignty. It would not be until Raffles
came to Johor in 1818 that a strong sultanate under Sultan Hussein
Johor's modern history began with Dato' Temenggong
Daing Ibrahim, the son of Temenggong Abdul Rahman, who was a descendant
of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV of Johor. In 1855, under the terms of
a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor,
control of the state was formally ceded to Dato` Temenggong Daing
Ibrahim, who began to develop Johor. Land was opened to Chinese
settlers from Singapore, and the cultivation of pepper was initiated,
bringing Johor its initial economic base. The Temenggong was succeeded
by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who was formally crowned
Sultan of Johor in 1866. Sultan Abu Bakar gave Johor its constitution,
developed its modern administrative system, and constructed the
Istana Besar--the official residence of the Sultan. He is known
today as the Father of Modern Johor.
The state continued to flourish throughout the
19th and 20th century. The increased demand for black pepper and
gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands
to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial
economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place. Under the
British Residency system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor,
was forced to accept a British adviser in 1914. D.G. Campbell
was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor.
British administration of Johor lasted until
1941, the year of the Japanese invasion. After the war, from 1945
to 1946, Johor was under the jurisdiction of the British Military
The British in London formed the Malayan Peninsula
Planning Unit in 1943, and on 10 October 1945, the Malayan Union
scheme was laid out before the British Parliament. A day later,
Sir Harold MacMichael was sent to the Malayan Peninsula to obtain
the agreement of the Malay Rulers. According to this agreement,
Penang, Malacca and nine other Malay states were united under
the Malayan Union.
Malay opposition derailed the Malayan Union
plan, and the Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed
the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) on 11 May 1946.
The Malay Federation was founded on 1 February 1948, the first
step towards independence, and on 31 August 1957, independence
Today its economy continues to exhibit strong
growth, with healthy industrial development and outstanding trade
and business facilities. The present ruler is His Majesty Sultan
Iskandar, who served from 1984 to 1989 as Malaysia's Eighth Yang
Di Pertuan Agong.
crescent and star of five points denote royal sovereignty.
The red represents a warrior and the blue represents the universe.
The crown represents
the Ruler, while the 4 stars stand for the 4 original Johor
districts of the State, namely Johor Bahru, Muar, Batu Pahat
and Endau. The crescent and star symbolise Islam. The two
rampant tigers on either side of the shield denote a time
when wild animals roamed Johor. The floral decorations below
the shield symbolise the original main products of Johor,
black pepper and gambier. The State motto reads "In the Hands
TOWNS AND CITIES
Bahru is the State Capital, built in 1855 by the late Sultan Abu
Bakar. The city is the southern gateway to Peninsular Malaysia.
It is a vibrant and exciting commercial city, offering a host
of sporting events, a pulsing nightlife, outstanding shopping
and accommodations, and a wide array of fine restaurants. The
city also contains a number of cultural and historical attractions,
including the Sultan Abu Bakar mosque, the imposing civic space
of the Dataran Bandaraya, the State Secretariat Building, and
most notably the Royal Abu Bakar Museum in the Grand Palace. Johor
Bahru is linked to Singapore via its 1,056-meter causeway, a dramatic
road, rail, and pedestrian link across the Straits of Johor via
a causeway to Tanjung Pagar and a second road link to Tuas in
the Republic. The Johor Causeway was built in 1924 but was destroyed
during World War II. The Japanese then repaired the causeway.
Royal Abu Bakar Museum
Said to be one of the finest museums in the
world in terms of its ambience and its dazzling display of cultural
treasures, the Royal Abu Bakar Museum occupies the Istana Besar,
or Grand Palace, built by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866. The museum
was founded in 1990 by Johor's present ruler, His Majesty Sultan
Iskandar, and its collection consists of the treasures of the
Royal Family. In addition to an extensive art collection, the
museum displays the ceremonial regalia, personal memorabilia,
furniture, objets d'arts, and cultural artifacts accumulated
by the Royal Family over the course of its reign.
Located at Pasir Gudang, approximately 20
nautical miles east of Johor Bahru, this Port began full operation
in 1997. Johor Port has undergone rapid growth and developmental
changes to fulfil the vision of a modern and dynamic port. The
port also has a comprehensive system of freeways and rail linkages
make the port easily accessible by road and rail from other
parts of West Malaysia especially Johor Bahru.
Muar is a picturesque town along the western
peninsular coast. Also known as Bandar Maharani, Muar is in many
ways a smaller version of Malacca, its more famous neighbor. Muar
is particularly renowned for its outstanding cuisine, with many
restaurants as well as food stalls serving irresistible local
Mersing is a pleasant fishing town, known primarily
as the departure point for some of the most beautiful islands
in the South China Sea--including the legendary Pulau Tioman.
The legendary beauty of Mount Ophir has made
it one of Johor's most popular attractions for hikers and birdwatchers.
The mountain offers several nature trails to its summit, some
lovely waterfalls, and modern facilities for camping and picnicking.
Pontian and Kukup
These two tiny fishing villages along Johor's
southwestern coast offer some of the best fresh seafood in the
region. The houses, as well as the restaurants, are built in traditional
style on stilts at the water's edge.
Tanjung Piai, situated in the midst of an extensive
area of mangrove forest, provides visitors with an glimpse of
the richness of Malaysia's coastal fauna as well as an experience
of traditional kampung life. Multi-coloured mangrove crabs, beady-eyed
mudskippers, and crab-eating macaques abound here.
||19,984 square km
| State Capital
Namely:- Batu Pahat, Johor Bahru, Kluang,
Kota Tinggi, Mersing, Muar, Pontian, Segamat
Breakdown of Races (1994)